From The Guardian UK: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/nov/24/consume-conserve-economic-growth-sustainability
George Monbiot Tuesday 24 November 2015
can have it all: that is the promise of our age. We can own every
gadget we are capable of imagining – and quite a few that we are not. We
can live like monarchs without compromising the Earth’s capacity to
sustain us. The promise that makes all this possible is that as
economies develop, they become more efficient in their use of resources.
In other words, they decouple.
There are two kinds of decoupling:
relative and absolute. Relative decoupling means using less stuff with
every unit of economic growth; absolute decoupling means a total
reduction in the use of resources, even though the economy continues to
grow. Almost all economists believe that decoupling – relative or
absolute – is an inexorable feature of economic growth.
On this notion rests the concept of sustainable development. It sits at the heart of the climate talks in Paris next month and of every other summit on environmental issues. But it appears to be unfounded.
A paper published earlier this year
in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences proposes that even
the relative decoupling we claim to have achieved is an artefact of
false accounting. It points out that governments and economists have
measured our impacts in a way that seems irrational.
the false accounting works. It takes the raw materials we extract in our
own countries, adds them to our imports of stuff from other countries,
then subtracts our exports, to end up with something called “domestic
material consumption”. But by measuring only the products shifted from
one nation to another, rather than the raw materials needed to create
those products, it greatly underestimates the total use of resources by
the rich nations.
For instance, if ores are mined and processed at
home, these raw materials, as well as the machinery and infrastructure
used to make finished metal, are included in the domestic material
consumption accounts. But if we buy a metal product from abroad, only
the weight of the metal is counted. So as mining and manufacturing shift
from countries such as the UK and the US to countries like China and
India, the rich nations appear to be using fewer resources. A more
rational measure, called the material footprint, includes all the raw
materials an economy uses, wherever they happen to be extracted. When
these are taken into account, the apparent improvements in efficiency
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